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Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

New and Recently-changed articles

These are recent changes to Wikenigma
Newest at the top. Click links to view . . .


New articles :

  • Lehmer's totient problemplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLehmer's totient problem

    "The totient function φ(n), also called Euler's totient function, is defined as the number of positive integers ≤ n that are relatively prime to (i.e., do not contain any factor in common with) n, where 1 is counted as being relatively prime t…
  • DISHplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDISH

    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis, or DISH (a.k.a. Forestier's disease) was first described over 100 years ago, It affects from 2.5% to 10% of people over the age of 70.

    It causes inflammation, and bone overgrowth, at the sites where tendons are attached t…
  • Thermoceptionplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigThermoception

    Thermoception, or the body's ability to sense heat (and cold), has been studied for several centuries. It's thought that the ability to detect temperature is extremely ancient in evolutionary terms. Going back as far as the evolution of
  • The Fasciaplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigThe Fascia

    Fascia are whitish bands or sheets of connective tissue - mainly composed of collagen and fat, which stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.

    It's exact definition has been much disputed over the years. Aside from 'compartmenta…
  • The Moon formationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigThe Moon formation

    If cosmological objects similar to the Earth and the Moon were observed orbiting a star other than the Sun, they would be classed as a 'Dual Planet' - i.e. two planets which orbit each other as well as orbiting the host star. The large size of the M…
  • The 'stopped clock illusion'plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigThe 'stopped clock illusion'

    When quickly glancing at an analogue clock with a second-hand, it often seems that the second-hand is 'stuck' for the first second - in other words the first tick of the hand appears to take longer than it should. In many cases the hand can…

Recently edited articles :

  • Lehmer's totient problemplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLehmer's totient problem

    "The totient function φ(n), also called Euler's totient function, is defined as the number of positive integers ≤ n that are relatively prime to (i.e., do not contain any factor in common with) n, where 1 is counted as being relatively prime t…
  • Four Color Theoremplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigFour Color Theorem

    As of Apr. 2019, this entry is now moved to the 'Deprecated' section.

    This theorem is widely regarded as having been solved.

    See : Formal Proof—The Four-Color Theorem Notices of the AMS Volume 55, Number 11.

    For reference, the original text…
  • Neural regenerationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeural regeneration

    It's known that neural tissue can routinely re-generate in several species. The subject is intensely researched because of its potential to re-grow neural tissue which has been damaged, either due to disease (e.g. Parkinson's disease, Multiple scler…
  • Life on Earth (timespan)plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLife on Earth (timespan)

    There is currently no scientific agreement as to how long ago life on Earth evolved. Estimates, based on geological evidence, vary by about 200 million years - from between 3.85 billion years ago (Ga), and 3.65 Ga..

    To date, the oldest undispu…
  • Tourette syndromeplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigTourette syndrome

    Tourette syndrome (TS or Tourette's) is a common neuro-psychiatric disorder which usually starts in childhood and is characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane in intensity and frequency…
  • Rosaceaplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRosacea

    "Rosacea is a long-term skin condition that typically affects the face. It results in redness, pimples, swelling, and small and superficial dilated blood vessels. Often the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin are most involved. A red enlarged nose may occur in se…
  • Sense of smell - Olfactionplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigSense of smell - Olfaction

    It's known that humans have about 10 cm2 of olfactory epithelium, with roughly 5 million sensory neurons.

    Smells are detected due to the activation of neurons by airborne volatile chemicals and particles. Different chemicals affect different…
  • Hippocampal sclerosisplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigHippocampal sclerosis

    Hippocampal sclerosis is a progressive degenerative disease which leads to loss of neurons in the brain's Hippocampus (which is involved with short and long term memory, and navigation skills etc.) It was first described in the 1880s. Its diagnos…
  • Ankylosing Spondylitisplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigAnkylosing Spondylitis

    "Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. AS often involves redness, heat, swelling, and pain in the spine or in the joint where the bottom of the spine (sacrum) joins the pelvic bone (ilium).
  • DISHplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDISH

    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis, or DISH (a.k.a. Forestier's disease) was first described over 100 years ago, It affects from 2.5% to 10% of people over the age of 70.

    It causes inflammation, and bone overgrowth, at the sites where tendons are attached t…
  • Core Clockplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCore Clock

    In humans, mammals, fish, insects, and very many other organisms, the 'Core Clock' which regulates variations in body functions is set to (approximately) 24 hours. This is the so-called Circadian Rhythm. - which in many organisms, is synchronised via dayligh…
  • Indus scriptplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigIndus script

    "The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a…
  • Giraffe neck evolutionplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGiraffe neck evolution

    The evolution of the extremely elongated neck of giraffes, which can be up to 2 - 2.4m in length, has been the subject of intense debate since the time of Darwin.

    "The 'competing browsers hypothesis' was originally suggested by Charles Darwin a…
  • Conversation timingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigConversation timing

    "Turn-taking is ubiquitous in conversation and is the normal case against which alternatives, such as interruptions, are treated as violations that warrant repair. Furthermore, turn-taking involves highly coordinated timing, including a cyclic rise…
  • Earth’s background free oscillationsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigEarth’s background free oscillations

    Earth’s background free oscillations (a.k.a. Earth's Hum and The Seismic Hum) were discovered in 1998 using a superconducting gravimeter at Syowa Station, Antarctica, and were subsequently confirmed by more than 200 other experiment…

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