Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

Site Tools


Main Menu

Main menu
Click categories to expand


A-Z listingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing

This is an alphabetical index of all content pages.


Other categories

Utilities

Contacts
Register

Also see

Importance Ratings
News
Legal
Donate/Sponsor


Wikenigma supports:


Feeds etc
rss / xml feed
sitemap file
A-Z listing (archived)

Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of the Unknown Science

New and Recently changed pages

These are recent changes to Wikenigma
Newest at the top. Click links to view . . .


New pages

  • Cell Wall Deficient Bacteria and Diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCell Wall Deficient Bacteria and Disease

    As the name suggests, Cell Wall Deficient Bacteria (CWDB) are a group of bacteria - originally identified in 1935 - which lack a normal cell wall, e.g. Bacillus subtilis.

    Some research groups have suggested that CWDB might caus…
  • Cellular organellesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCellular organelles

    Eukaryotic cells are cells which have a nucleus. Within that nucleus are various discrete structures with very specific functions that are, as a group, called 'organelles'.

    In the 1970s a book by professor Lynn Margulis titled Origin of Eukaryotic …
  • Cicada lifecycleplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCicada lifecycle

    In North America, Cicadas spend most of the lifepan as underground larvae known as nymphs. Depending on the species, they emerge en-masse as winged adults after either 13 years or 17 years. When this behaviour was originally discovered, it was noted th…
  • Neural regenerationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeural regeneration

    It's known that neural tissue can routinely re-generate in several species. The subject is intensely researched because of its potential to re-grow neural tissue which has been damaged due to disease or injury (e.g. Parkinson's disease and Multiple …
  • Neuropathic painplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeuropathic pain

    Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease in the nervous system. It's estimated that more than 5% of the global population is affected, often severely.

    "Central neuropathic pain is found in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and some strok…
  • Glioblastomasplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGlioblastomas

    Glioblastomas are the second most prevalent form of brain cancer (after Meningiomas). The cancers are malignant and highly aggressive, and are hard to treat effectively (either with drugs, surgery of radiotherapy). It's estimated that more than 20,000 cas…
  • Mars Oceanplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Ocean

    Many of the extensively surveyed geological features of Mars suggest that the planet once had an extensive liquid water ocean.

    The ocean has been named as Paleo-Ocean and Oceanus Boreali , and some researchers suggest that it could have covered up to 30% of…
  • Visual Accommodationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigVisual Accommodation

    Accommodation is the process by which the eye changes optical focus (from distant to near and vice versa) due to muscular re-shaping of the eye's lens. It can either be automatic or under voluntary control.

    The mechanism involves a smooth muscle g…
  • Neanderthal behaviourplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeanderthal behaviour

    "Almost everything about Neanderthal behaviour remains controversial. Source: Wikipedia"

    Despite very extensive research using the fossil record and remains of artefacts, it's still unknown whether the Neanderthal people :

    * Used language
  • Dreadlock formationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDreadlock formation

    Dreadlocks are are rope-like multiple strands of hair caused by locking or braiding hair. (see Wikipedia )

    They way in which they form is unclear. They tend to be knotted throughout their length, from the scalp to the tip. If the knotting starts at…
  • Respiratory rhythmplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRespiratory rhythm

    The neural regulators and feedback mechanisms which control the rhythmic nature of breathing in mammals (and many other organisms) are currently the subject of intense research.

    "Mammalian central pattern generators producing rhythmic movements exh…
  • Lunar Rillesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLunar Rilles

    Rilles are long, narrow depressions on the surface of the Moon that resemble channels. They can be several kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers long. The term is also used to describe similar features that have been found on a number of planets in th…
  • Psychogenic painplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPsychogenic pain

    Psychogenic pain, a.k.a. persistent somatoform pain disorder and functional pain syndrome has been defined as physical pain that is caused, increased, or prolonged by mental, emotional, or behavioral factors.

    It may be linked to stress, unexpressed e…
  • Castleman diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCastleman disease

    Casleman Disease is a condition which leads to lymph node enlargements and dysfunction. It was first described in 1956, and since then three types have been identified :

    • Unicentric Castleman disease (UCD) • Idiopathic multicentric Castleman diseas…
  • Bicycle designplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigBicycle design

    The earliest bicycles had no integrated means of propulsion - being essentially unpowered seated 'scooters'. The invention of the 'crank' - in other words the attachment of powering pedals to the wheel - appears to be a lost historical event :

Recently edited pages

  • Dreamingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDreaming

    "The content and purpose of dreams are not yet understood, though they have been a topic of speculation and interest throughout recorded history. Source : Wikipedia"

    Not only is the function of dreaming unknown (if there is one), but there isn't as yet an ag…
  • Microbiome interactionsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMicrobiome interactions

    "“The human gut harbors trillions of invisible microbial inhabitants, referred to as the microbiota, that collectively produce thousands of unique small molecules. The sources and biological functions of the vast majority of these molecules are…
  • Archaeomeplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigArchaeome

    The human Microbiome (a.k.a. Microbiota) has been the focus of intense research for many decades. We are hosts to a vast array of microorganisms, including bacteria, eukaryotes, archaea, fungi and viruses - many of which are now known to be beneficial to hum…
  • Cell Wall Deficient Bacteria and Diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCell Wall Deficient Bacteria and Disease

    As the name suggests, Cell Wall Deficient Bacteria (CWDB) are a group of bacteria - originally identified in 1935 - which lack a normal cell wall, e.g. Bacillus subtilis.

    Some research groups have suggested that CWDB might caus…
  • Genome sizeplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGenome size

    The size of the genome (which can be said to be the amount of DNA in an organism's genes) varies enormously from one species to another. The smallest size, for viruses, varies from 2 thousand base-pairs to over a million.

    Humans have about 3 billion (formi…
  • Sense of smell - Olfactionplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigSense of smell - Olfaction

    It's known that humans have about 10 cm2 of olfactory epithelium, with roughly 5 million sensory neurons.

    Smells are detected due to the activation of neurons by airbourne volatile chemicals and particles. Different chemicals affect differen…
  • Cellular organellesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCellular organelles

    Eukaryotic cells are cells which have a nucleus. Within that nucleus are various discrete structures with very specific functions that are, as a group, called 'organelles'.

    In the 1970s a book by professor Lynn Margulis titled Origin of Eukaryotic …
  • Dreadlock formationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDreadlock formation

    Dreadlocks are are rope-like multiple strands of hair caused by locking or braiding hair. (see Wikipedia )

    They way in which they form is unclear. They tend to be knotted throughout their length, from the scalp to the tip. If the knotting starts at…
  • Cicada lifecycleplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCicada lifecycle

    In North America, Cicadas spend most of the lifepan as underground larvae known as nymphs. Depending on the species, they emerge en-masse as winged adults after either 13 years or 17 years. When this behaviour was originally discovered, it was noted th…
  • Neural regenerationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeural regeneration

    It's known that neural tissue can routinely re-generate in several species. The subject is intensely researched because of its potential to re-grow neural tissue which has been damaged due to disease or injury (e.g. Parkinson's disease and Multiple …
  • Limb Regenerationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLimb Regeneration

    Many animals, notably salamanders, axolotls, starfish &etc are able to regrow limbs which have been lost to accidents or disease. Although mammals can regrow various tissues (notably skin, liver and tail tips) there is no capacity to regrow limbs etc.…
  • Immune tolerance in pregnancyplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigImmune tolerance in pregnancy

    Why doesn't an expectant mother's immune system damage her growing baby - since it has 'foreign' DNA?

    This fundamental phenomenon has yet to be fully explained.

    "“During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is exposed to a major chall…
  • Neuropathic painplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeuropathic pain

    Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease in the nervous system. It's estimated that more than 5% of the global population is affected, often severely.

    "Central neuropathic pain is found in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and some strok…
  • Glioblastomasplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGlioblastomas

    Glioblastomas are the second most prevalent form of brain cancer (after Meningiomas). The cancers are malignant and highly aggressive, and are hard to treat effectively (either with drugs, surgery of radiotherapy). It's estimated that more than 20,000 cas…
  • Mars Oceanplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Ocean

    Many of the extensively surveyed geological features of Mars suggest that the planet once had an extensive liquid water ocean.

    The ocean has been named as Paleo-Ocean and Oceanus Boreali , and some researchers suggest that it could have covered up to 30% of…
X

Dear reader : Do you have any suggestions for the site's content?

Ideas for new topics, and suggested additions / corrections for old ones, are always welcome.

If you have skills or interests in a particular field, and have suggestions for Wikenigma, get in touch !


Or, if you'd like to become a regular contributor . . . request a login password. Registered users can edit the entire content of the site, and also create new pages.

( The 'Notes for contributors' section in the main menu has further information and guidelines etc.)


DOKUWIKI IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN BY UNIV.ORG.UK MAY 2021