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  • Spaceflight anemiaplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigSpaceflight anemia

    "Anemia in astronauts has been noted since the first space missions, but the mechanisms contributing to anemia in space flight have remained unclear."

    Source : Nature Medicine volume 28, pages 59–62 (2022)"

    Anomalies in the amount of hemoglobin degradation in astronauts (around 12% higher than normal) was first discovered in the 1980s. The degradation leads to anemia, and tends to take hold in the first 10 days or so of micro-gravity spaceflight. After-effects appear to be…
  • Lifespan variationsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLifespan variations

    In general, the lifespan for human males is around 5% shorter than for females. Though this phenomenon has been self-evident for millennia, the reasons for the difference are still unclear.

    There are many theories, which include biochemical, social, psychological and behavioural factors (no particular order)
  • Plantar fasciitisplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPlantar fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis or plantar heel pain is a painful disorder of the fascia of the heel and sole of the foot.

    The pain typically starts gradually, especially after exercise, and can affect both feet (in about one-third of cases). It can be so severe as to make normal walking impossible. It's the most common cause of acquired sub-calcaneal heel pain in adults, and recovery can take several weeks

Recently edited articles :

  • Spaceflight anemiaplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigSpaceflight anemia

    "Anemia in astronauts has been noted since the first space missions, but the mechanisms contributing to anemia in space flight have remained unclear."

    Source : Nature Medicine volume 28, pages 59–62 (2022)"

    Anomalies in the amount of hemoglobin degradation in astronauts (around 12% higher than normal) was first discovered in the 1980s. The degradation leads to anemia, and tends to take hold in the first 10 days or so of micro-gravity spaceflight. After-effects appear to be…
  • Apollo Syndromeplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigApollo Syndrome

    A 2016 study into cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst members of the NASA Apollo missions found that the CVD mortality rate in Apollo lunar astronauts was 4–5 times higher than in non-flight and Low Earth Orbit astronauts.

    "[...
  • Microgravity Immune Suppressionplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMicrogravity Immune Suppression

    "Spaceflight causes alterations in human immunity, a finding which has been well documented immediately following spaceflight. Limited in-flight studies have also confirmed that to some degree immunity is compromised
  • Spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigSpaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

    Approximately 60% of the crew members of the International Space Station have reported altered visual acuity after long-duration exposure to micro-gravity.

    "Astronauts on long-duration spaceflight missions may develop changes in ocular structure and function, which can persist for years after the return to normal gravity.
  • Lifespan variationsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLifespan variations

    In general, the lifespan for human males is around 5% shorter than for females. Though this phenomenon has been self-evident for millennia, the reasons for the difference are still unclear.

    There are many theories, which include biochemical, social, psychological and behavioural factors (no particular order)
  • Mozart's deathplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMozart's death

    The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on 5 December 1791 at the age of 35. The circumstances of his death have attracted much research and speculation.

    Mozart himself was convinced that he was being poisoned. He became increasingly unwell, but then had a brief period of recovery, However :
  • Alzheimer's diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigAlzheimer's disease

    "Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic progressive neuro-degenerative disorder characterised by three primary groups of symptoms. The first group (cognitive dysfunction) includes memory loss, language difficulties, and executive dysfunction (that is, loss of higher level planning and intellectual coordination skills). The second group comprises psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances — for example, depression, hallucinations, delusions, agitation — collectively termed …
  • Post-concussion syndromeplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPost-concussion syndrome

    Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) refers to a range of reported symptoms which persist after a brain concussion event - sometimes for months or even years.

    PCS is estimated to affect 15-30% of people who have had concussion injuries.
  • Labyrinthitisplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLabyrinthitis

    "Labyrinthitis is an inflammatory disorder of the inner ear, or labyrinth. Clinically, this condition produces disturbances of balance and hearing to varying degrees and may affect one or both ears. Bacteria or viruses can cause acute inflammation of the labyrinth in conjunction with either local or systemic infections. Autoimmune processes may also cause labyrinthitis. Vascular ischemia may result in acute labyrinthine dysfunction that mimics labyrinthitis".
  • Ménière’s diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigMénière’s disease

    "Ménière’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes severe dizziness (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness or congestion in the ear. Ménière’s disease usually affects only one ear."
  • Carboniferous gigantismplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCarboniferous gigantism

    Fossils show that during the Earth's Late Carboniferous period (around 300 million years ago) there were several species of insects - e.g. Meganeura (giant dragonflies) and Arthropleura (giant millipedes) - which reached sizes far larger than known today.
  • Positron excessplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPositron excess

    A 'Positron Excess' in cosmic emissions from deep space have recently been logged by various observation satellites ( PAMELA, Fermi-LAT and AMS-02 ).

    As yet, there is no agreed explanation for the source of the positrons (i.e. 'anti' electrons ) in the numbers in which they are found.
  • Paracetamolplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigParacetamol

    "Acetaminophen (INN Paracetamol) is one of the most widely used over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic drugs worldwide. [...] Although discovered more than 100 years ago, and used extensively for ~ 50 years, its mode of action is still unclear
  • Prime Numbersplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPrime Numbers

    Since all other whole numbers (except 0) can be produced by multiplying together primes – they must be considered fundamental.

    (1), 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31 &etc

    There are an infinite number of primes - as proved by Euclid around 300B.C. (
  • Deep Brain Stimulationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDeep Brain Stimulation

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is therapeutic neurosurgical procedure used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome

    See Wikipedia

    It was introduced in 1997, and involves direct electrical stimulation (via implanted wires) of various brain regions. Because of the surgical risks, it's usually only used for severely affected patients, when drug treatment is not proving effective.

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