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Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a complex multifactorial disease of weight-bearing joints, with extensive psychosocial impact. The etiology of primary OA remains unknown and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of OA initiation and progression are not fully elucidated.

Source : Osetoarthritis and Cartilage Journal Volume 29, ISSUE 1, P6-7, January 01, 2021

As the paper cited above notes : although it has been known for many years that general 'wear and tear' damage, and specific injury, can lead to the development of osteoarthritis, the exact biological pathways are currently unknown.

The condition results in the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. It's extremely common - for example, the lifetime risk of an individual developing osteoarthritis of the knee is currently estimated at 46% ( source : American College of Rheumatology. )

To date, a number of pathways implicated in various aspects of OA, such as inflammation, apoptosis, chondrogenesis, degeneration, and circadian clock, have been targeted for treatment purposes.

Further info US NIH National Institute on Aging

A 2023 study suggests that a possible contributing factor could be imbalanced changes in the ubiquitous mammalian Synovial Fluid (SF), the joint lubricant which contains biomolecules including hyaluronan, lubricin, and phospholipids.

The imbalances, say the research team, could lead to early wear in the joints. See : Biointerphases Volume 18, Issue 2

Also see : Rheumatoid Arthritisplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic severe inflammatory disease believed to affect around 1% of the global population. It primarily affects joints,which typically become warm, swollen,and painful. Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrists and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body.

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