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Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

Epilepsy

“Epilepsy is a chronic noncommunicable disease of the brain that affects around 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized) and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function. Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.”

[…]

Although many underlying disease mechanisms can lead to epilepsy, the cause of the disease is still unknown in about 50% of cases globally.“

Source: World Health Organization

Note: Many of the drugs which are currently used to treat epilepsy have unknown 'mechanisms of action'. e.g. Levetiracetamplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLevetiracetam

Levetiracetam, sold under brand names of Keppra, Elepsia, Epictal, Lenerve, Levepsy, Torleva (and many others) is a prescription-only anticonvulsant medication forepilepsy. It is used for partial onset, myoclonic, or tonic-clonic seizures. It is taken b…
, Valproateplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigValproate

"Valproate (VPA) and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and prevent migraine headaches. They are useful for the prevention of seizures in those with absenc…
, Lamotrigineplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLamotrigine

Lamotrigine is used as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer. Currently prescribed in cases of epilepsy, Lennox–Gastaut syndrome and bipolar disorder. Its active biochemical pathways are not known. more info at Wikipedia

"“The action mechanisms underlying…
, Gabapentinplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGabapentin

Gabapentin, sold under the brandnames Gralise, Gabarone, Fanatrex, Neurontin (and mmany others) was discovered in the 1970s, and was first used as a muscle relaxant and painkiller.

In the US alone, it currently has more than 40 million prescriptions per yea…
etc.


Also see : Psychogenic Non-Epileptic seizure (PNES)plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigPsychogenic Non-Epileptic seizure (PNES)

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are seizure events which appear similar to those of Epilepsy, but without the associated (easily identifiable) electrical brainwave patterns.

The seizures can be severe, and last up to two min…


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