Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
Widely documented examples include individuals who reliably and consistently 'see' colours for numerals, 'taste' musical notes, or 'smell' colours etc.
Although many research projects have demonstrated various ways in which synesthesia manifests itself, there is no agreement on how it arises.
See Neural basis of synesthesia at Wikipedia.
Note that the incidence of synesthesia can be substantially affected by
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