Stuttering, estimated to affect 55 million people worldwide, is defined as :
- a disruption in the fluency of verbal expression characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables
Over the centuries, a number of theories about how stuttering arises (and what treatment approaches should be used) have been proposed.
It tends to affect children more than adults - and boys four times more than girls. It's currently unknown whether stuttering is a cognitve, motor, or sensory disorder - or some combination of the three.
Recent progress in near-realtime brain imaging studies have found that :
(i) in stutterers, the right hemisphere seems to be hyperactive, and (ii) a timing problem seems to exist between the left frontal and the left central cortex.
Current medical treatments tend to be based around 'neuroleptic' (anti-psychotic) drugs such as haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine - which are also used to help control
See : PLoS Biol 2(2): e46
 Several studies have documented the fact that most people ( currently estimated at 92%) who stutter in normal speech can sing song-lyrics without any difficulties. There is no explanation for this effect. [ Ref : Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain Vol. 31, Iss. 1, (Mar 2021): 18-34 ]
 It's known that, in some cases, the disorder has a genetic component, as it tends to run in families. The associated genes have not been identified.
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