Quantun Entanglement was first predicted by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen in 1935.
It has now been (unequivocally) experimentally demonstrated with photons, neutrinos, electrons, and even molecules. In 2019, it was announced that 'superposition' had been achieved in an organic compound with more than 2,000 atoms. (ref. Nature, Physics)
Entanglement is defined as :
[…] a physical phenomenon that occurs when a pair or group of particles is generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the pair or group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance.
This implies that if any aspect of one of the entangled particles is changed, the other corresponding particles will also be changed. This has now been experimentally verified in multiple experiments.
Since entangled particles can be separated by any distance, a problem arises as to whether the effect is 'instantaneous' - if it is, then 'information' travels faster than lightspeed, which is strictly prohibited in the current Standard Model of physics. If the transfer isn't 'instantaneous' then current explanations of entanglement are lacking detail.
For an extensive technical overview (and the philosophical implications) see Quantum Entanglement and Information, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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