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Content Guidelinesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContent guidelines

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In a departure from the usual Wiki format, Wikenigma assigns 'Importance Ratings' to some pages.

The idea is to separate articles which are considered (by the editors) to cover exceptionally important unknown issues from those which (although also u…

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Q. Why the weird syntax? A. Like most Wikis, the site doesn't use HTML for formatting (security reasons etc). A guide to the special syntax can be found here. Unfortunately it can be quite confusing at first - but there's now a new 'Visual …

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• Oct 2020 : A milestone of 500 unknown articles has been reached.

• Aug 2020 : Currently (beta) testing the new 'WYSIWYG' (What You See Is What You Get) page editor. It greatly simplifies the editing process, avoiding the need to learn th…

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Mass

All physical objects have ‘mass’. The mass is (largely) a consequence of the additions of the masses of the atomic and subatomic particles from which the objects are comprised. Theorists currently support the idea of mass-creation via the Higgs Mechanism. See Wikipedia

But Higgs theory doesn't explain how or why subatomic particles themselves have wildly differing masses. For example, the 'up' and 'down' quarks which make up protons and neutrons, have different masses (by a factor of 2) - and the 'top' quark has a measured mass approaching that of some entire atoms.

There is also no explanation as to why the masses of some particles are “100 quadrillion times smaller” than theory would suggest. Source:'The Higgs mass mystery' New Scientist, Nov. 2015.

Further, as well as the current theories that put 'ordinary' matter as accounting for just 5% (or so) of the mass of the universe 1), Higgs theory only accounts for around 2% of this 5%. Put another way, this means that only 0.1% of the mass of 'ordinary matter' is currently explained.

“these current-quark masses leave 98% of the mass of the atom unexplained.” source

A further complication is that the mass of the Higgs particle itself has yet to be explained. “[…] the problem cannot even be formulated in the strict context of the Standard Model”

Note: A new (2016) (US/Japan/China) study details theoretical and experimental research on supercooled rubidium which claims to demonstrate 'Negative Mass'.

Theoretically, a 'Negative Mass' object would move towards a force attempting to accelerate it, or would fall upwards in a gravitational field (etc etc).

“Negative mass can be realized in quantum systems by engineering the dispersion relation. A powerful method is provided by spin-orbit coupling, which is currently at the center of intense research efforts. Here we measure an expanding spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate whose dispersion features a region of negative mass.”

See: Negative mass hydrodynamics in a spin-orbit–coupled Bose-Einstein condensate Importance Rating


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see: Dark Matterplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDark Matter

"“The nature of the dominant component of galaxies and clusters remains unknown.”"

Source: Measuring the dark matter equation of state (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415, L74–L77)

In the 1930s, astronomical observations of galaxy rotations showed that the ou…
and Dark energyplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDark Energy

"“The observational results of the latest 15 to 20 years have established a standard model for the cosmology which has some amazing consequences. A mysterious entity, the dark energy, has been confirmed as the dominant component of the Universe, and is als…

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