Please register ( or log-in ) to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register ( or log-in ) to create and edit pages
  • Register

Site Tools


Main Menu

Main menu
[ Click categories to expand ]

Other categories

For tests only


Also see:

Content Guidelinesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContent guidelines

Ideas for new topics are always welcomed, from experts and non-experts alike - if you're not sure if they'll be accepted by other editors, put them in the 'Proposed content' section for approval. The easiest way to create a new page is to use the

Registrationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRegistration

At present, only registered users can create and edit articles. The registration process is very straightforward. Just click the 'Register' link at the top right of any page.

After you've registered, you'll be able to login with your password at any time…

How to edit pagesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigEditing pages

Once you're logged in, a grey floating 'Tool' menu at the right hand side of the screen enables access to all the main 'Content Pages' for editing. (Note: Some pages, such as the site info etc. are locked)

Like most Wikis, the site doesn't use

Importance Ratingsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigImportance ratings

In a departure from the usual Wiki format, Wikenigma assigns 'Importance Ratings' to some pages.

The idea is to separate articles which are considered (by the editors) to cover exceptionally important unknown issues from those which (although also u…

Faqplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigFrequently Asked Questions

Q. Why the weird syntax?

A. Like most Wikis, the site doesn't use HTML for formatting (security reasons etc). A guide to the special syntax can be found here. Unfortunately it can be quite confusing at first - but there's now a new 'Visual E…

Newsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNews

[ newest at the top ]

• Oct 2020 : A milestone of 500 unknown articles has been reached.

• Aug 2020 : Currently (beta) testing the new 'WYSIWYG' (What You See Is What You Get) page editor. It greatly simplifies the editing process, avoiding the need to learn the…

Contactsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContacts

Use this form to send a message to Wikenigma . . . [ * note: all fields must be completed ]

Legalplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLegal

Content in general

Please note that in common with other publicly editable wikis, this website is not responsible for content posted by the public. Nevertheless, the ongoing editing process should be able to remove unsuitable content in a reasonable time. If you…


547 unknowns listed

Wikenigma supports:

plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDonate to Wikenigma . . .

The best way to donate is by adding new original content !

That can either be by contributing to an existing article, or by creating a new page with an as-yet-unlisted 'Known Unknown'.

Any registered user can create content.

A-Z listing
rss / xml feed
sitemap file

Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of the Unknown Science

Cosmic rays

“Cosmic rays are typically protons or atomic nuclei of elements such as helium, carbon, or iron. The most energetic have energies more than 10 million times greater than those in the world’s most powerful atom smasher, the Large Hadron Collider. Physicists aren't sure what astrophysical process could accelerate particles to such energies. Possible culprits include the lingering remains of supernovae, the explosions that occur when massive stars run out of fuel and die; and active galactic nuclei, superheated galaxies with supermassive black holes at their centers that spew out energy at prodigious rates.” Source: Science, 2016

The cosmic source of the (misnamed) 'rays' has been disputed since their discovery in 1912. Over the last hundred years or so, various sources have been suggested, including supernovas, quasars and (the as-yet-unknown source of) Gamma-ray burstsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigGamma-ray bursts

Gamma-ray bursts, which were first discovered by satellites originally intended to scan for nuclear weapon detonations, probably have multiple sources. They range from bursts of ten milliseconds to several hours, and also have differing energy levels.
.

Supernovae are again the main contender.

“In 2009, supernovae were said to have been “pinned down” as a source of cosmic rays, a discovery made by a group using data from the Very Large Telescope. This analysis, however, was disputed in 2011 with data from PAMELA, which revealed that “spectral shapes of [hydrogen and helium nuclei] are different and cannot be described well by a single power law”, suggesting a more complex process of cosmic ray formation. In February 2013, though, research analyzing data from Fermi revealed through an observation of neutral pion decay that supernovae were indeed a source of cosmic rays, with each explosion producing roughly 3 × 1042 – 3 × 1043 J of cosmic rays”
Source Wikipedia

Nevertheless, Cosmic Rays are also known to be generated outside supernovae - but currently, the percentage is unknown.

Importance Rating


    Share this page :


DOKUWIKI IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN BY UNIV.ORG.UK