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Vascular dementia

Vascular dementia (VD) is the second most common cause of dementia following Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The major symptoms of VD including memory loss, language deficits and impairment of executive functions. Its specific etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown.

Source : Cell and Tissue Banking volume 21, pages 349–360(2020)

Vascular dementia (known by the abbreviations VaD and VD) is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.

Although it's known that VaD is due to faulty blood supply, in most cases the cause of the blood vessel decline is unknown.

Risk factors which can increase the chances of VaD developing include smoking,high blood pressureplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigHypertension

Only 5 -10% of cases of hypertension (high blood pressure) have causes which can be clearly identified - e.g. due to narrowing of the arteries. Put another way, of those patients who have been identified as having abnormally high blood pressure, physicians will not be able to pinpoint a specific cause in more than 90% of cases.
, cardiovascular disease and ageing in general.


Also see : Arterial sclerosis (a.k.a Atherosclerosis)plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigArterial sclerosis (a.k.a Atherosclerosis)

Arterial sclerosis (a.k.a. atherosclerosis) is an extremely common condition which can cause coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction and other serious conditions. However:

""The atherosclerotic process is not fully understood."
and Alzheimer's diseaseplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigAlzheimer's disease

"Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic progressive neuro-degenerative disorder characterised by three primary groups of symptoms. The first group (cognitive dysfunction) includes memory loss, language difficulties, and executive dysfunction (that is, loss of higher level planning and intellectual coordination skills). The second group comprises psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances — for example, depression, hallucinations, delusions, agitation — collectively termed …

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