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content:medicine:diseases:g-l:glaucoma

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases - the leading cause of non-reversible blindness worldwide. It's linked* with increased intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and results in damage to the retinal cells and the optic nerve. (Note the increased IOP is also sometimes called occular hypertension.)

Glaucoma is characterized by a continuous loss of retinal ganglion cells. The cause of glaucoma is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), but the underlying pathophysiology is diverse and, in most cases, unknown.

Source : Pharmacology & Therapeutics, April 2023 (early view)

Although the cause in predominantly unknown, it's been found that genetics, environmental factors, and especially age, make it considerably more likely for individuals to develop the disease.

* Important Note : Only about 50% of people with chronic simple glaucoma actually have elevated IOP (ref.)

Results confirmed that IOP is an important factor in glaucoma, but did not support the traditional distinction between "normal" and "elevated" pressure, nor its corollaries, "low-tension" glaucoma and "high-tension" glaucoma.

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Two of the first-line drugs used to treat high IOP have 'mechanisms of action' which are unexplained. See Bimatoprostplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigBimatoprost

Bimatoprost is a drug used to treat Glaucoma - linked to excess pressure within the eye. It currently has more than 2 million prescriptions per year in the US alone. Marketed, usually as eye-drops, under the brand names Lumigan, Latisse, Vistitan
and Betaxololplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigBetaxolol

Betaxolol - currently sold under brand names Betoptic, Betoptic S, Lokren, Kerlone and others - is a prescription drug used to treat Glaucoma and its associated ocular hypertension. It was patented in 1975 and was first licenced for medical use over forty years ago.


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