Cramps (severe involuntary muscle contractions) are divided into two types - those that are triggered by strenuous exercise (exercise-associated muscle cramps) and those that occur without any easily identified cause - especially at night.
There are competing theories as to the mechanisms that create the contractions (electrolyte imbalance or altered neuromuscular activity). There is however no firm agreement. There is also no proven effective drug treatment for the prevention of either type of cramp.
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