Pearls are the only 'gems' produced by a living organism. Their formation process (either by natural means or through human intervention) is a response to an injury in an oyster's 'mantle' tissue, such as an intrusion by a foreign body, e.g. a sand grain etc.
The exact mechanisms for the glossy pearl formation are unclear.
Nature's ability to generate so amazingly complex structures like a pearl is impressive and still partially unknown. [â€¦] Such a challenge will strongly encourage the community to continue to develop approaches and knowledge to decipher the biophysical and molecular details of biomineralization processes.â€ś
â€ť[â€¦] our fundamental understanding of nacre formation remains limited. Few studies are available that explain the pearl mineralization process as well as the formation of defects [â€¦]â€ś
Source : Yes, it turns: experimental evidence of pearl rotation during its formation Royal Society, Open Science
The 2105 study from UniversitĂ© de la PolynĂ©sie FranĂ§aise experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, that pearls rotate inside the oyster during their formation - perhaps contributing to their rounded form.
Note: As the quote above explains, the formation of nacre - the material which forms not only pearls but also the shells of marine molluscs in general - has not been fully explained.
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