In August 2014 an international research team reported (in Nature(paywalled)512, pages 306–309) on a new analysis of 40 sites in Western Europe - concluding that Neanderthals died out about 40,000 years ago.
There are numerous theories which attempt an explanation of their extinction - including :
As yet, no theory has been universally accepted by experts in the field. The explanation could be a combination (or none) of the above.
Further reading Wikipedia
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