Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

Site Tools


Main Menu

Main menu
Click categories to expand

Other categories


A-Z listingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing

This is an alphabetical index of all content pages.


Also see

Importance Ratingsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigImportance ratings

In a departure from the usual Wiki format, Wikenigma assigns 'Importance Ratings' to some pages.

The idea is to separate articles which are considered (by the editors) to cover exceptionally important unknown issues from those which (although also u…

Newsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNews

[ newest at the top ]

• Mar. 2021 : Many thanks to the The British Library, which has now begun permanently archiving the contents of Wikenigma.

• Jan. 2021 : A milestone of 600 unknown articles has been reached.

• Oct. 2020 : A milestone of 500 unknown article…

Contactsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContacts

Use this form to send a message to Wikenigma . . . [ * note: all fields must be completed ]

Legalplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLegal

Content in general

Please note that in common with other publicly editable wikis, this website is not responsible for content posted by the public. Nevertheless, the ongoing editing process should be able to remove unsuitable content in a reasonable time. If you…

Donate/Sponsorplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDonate to Wikenigma . . .

The best way to donate is by adding new original content !

That can either be by contributing to an existing article, or by creating a new page with an as-yet-unlisted 'Known Unknown'.

Any registered user can create content.

Registerplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRegistration

At present, only registered users can create and edit articles.

If you'd like to register as a contributor, please request a password.

When filling in the form, make sure you supply a valid e-mail address, as the login password will be sent to that addre…


Wikenigma supports:


Utilities
rss / xml feed
sitemap file
A-Z listing (archived)plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing (archived)

This is an older, partial A-Z listing intended for search engines only.

Last updated : March 2021

For an up-to-date list see A-Z listing in the Main Menu

Abracadabra etymology

Acamprosate

Acrocyanosis

Acupuncture

Attention-Deficit / Hypera…

Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of the Unknown Science

Cable Bacteria

Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria, found in aqueous sediments, which form chains that conduct electricity. They transfer electrons across distances over 1cm (possibly more) in sediment and groundwater aquifers. They enable the reduction of oxygen and/or nitrates at the sediment's surface to the oxidation of sulphides in the deeper, oxygen-free, sediment layers.

Their electrical activity is predicted to have profound impacts on mineral deposition - and they very probably play an important role in maintaining marine ecosystems in coastal areas. Recycling key elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

Laboratory cultures have shown that there can be more than 2km of conductive 'cables' in a single cubic cm. of sediment. 1)

“Long-distance electrical conductance in sediment was first observed in 2010 as a spatial separation of sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment that was interrupted and re-established at a rate faster than could be explained by chemical diffusion. It was later found that this electrical conductance could be observed across a non-conductive layer of glass microspheres, where the only possible conductive structures were filamentous bacteria belonging to the family Desulfobulbaceae.

Source: Wikipedia

A 2019 report in Nature Communications detailed findings that the electrical conductivity works via 17 to 60 parallel conductive fibres embedded in the cell envelope.

“We have succeeded into depositing intact cable bacterium filaments onto micro-fabricated electrodes, in such a way that the filaments remain conductive. These results unequivocally demonstrate that electrical currents are running through cable bacteria.”

The 'current density' (i.e. the ability to conduct) was found to be roughly the same as for household copper wiring. The conductive fibres are believed to be protein-based - but its exact composition is unknown.

See: A highly conductive fibre network enables centimetre-scale electron transport in multicellular cable bacteria Nature Communications, volume 10, Article number: 4120 (2019).

How the 'cables' evolved is also currently unexplained.

Importance Rating


    Share this page :

X

Dear reader : Do you have any suggestions for the site's content?

Ideas for new topics, and suggested additions / corrections for old ones, are always welcome.

If you have skills or interests in a particular field, and have suggestions for Wikenigma, get in touch !


Or, if you'd like to become a regular contributor . . . request a login password. Registered users can edit the entire content of the site, and also create new pages.

( The 'Notes for contributors' section in the main menu has further information and guidelines etc.)

Show another (random) page

DOKUWIKI IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN BY UNIV.ORG.UK MARCH 2021