There isn‚Äôt, as yet, any definition of a 'lifeform' which can withstand logical scrutiny.
Exceptions can easily be found for any definition so far presented. For example (from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language):
The property or quality that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter, manifested in functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism.‚Äú
There are, however, no plausible reasons (apart from our current lack of expertise) why a synthetic system could not be built which could carry out all of the requirements above. But most would argue that such a machine would still not be a ‚Äėlifeform‚Äô. (see Synthetic Biology section below)
Many other definitions are circular e.g.‚ÄúLife forms carry out biological processes.‚ÄĚ or, ‚ÄúA biological process is a process of a living organism.‚ÄĚ or, weaker still, ‚ÄúThe characteristic state or condition of a living organism.‚ÄĚ
(All definitions via Wikipedia)
A 2016 review in Acta Biotheor. 64(3):277-307. suggested a set of ten measures which, the authors propose, can define whether an entity is alive or not.
It is the regulation of networks and a hierarchy of complicated time patterns, which coordinate the multiple functions on different system levels within the organism.‚ÄĚ [ which define a lifeform ]
Despite all modern knowledge about living organisms, it is still difficult to answer the question of what life really is. In a certain sense, life is still an enigma.‚Äú
Perhaps the strongest (tongue in cheek?) definition so far is from physicist Fritjof Capra ‚ÄúAnything which contains DNA and is not dead.‚ÄĚ
Bearing in mind all of the above, a comprehensive resum√© of the currently accepted best-shot requirements for an entity to be called 'alive' can be read here at Encyclop√¶dia Britannica.
In the 1970s, the concept of 'Autopoiesis' was suggested by Chilean biologists Maturana and Varela. The core idea being that living systems are able to maintain themselves and repair damage via complex feedback loops - and might even be defined by this ability.
There are, however, non-living natural systems which - given a reliable energy supply and a supply of the relevant resources - can self-sustain and even continually 'repair' themselves over long periods (example :).
The concept was later extended to suggest that autopoietic living systems can not only maintain themselves but also improve their state over time. In other words, a new suggestion for evolution. This idea, however, is not universally accepted.
Working from the other direction, many research groups worldwide are attempting to create various forms of 'artificial' life.
So far, building a working replica - or analogue - of even the simplest possible living cell has not proved possible.
A major goal of synthetic biology is to understand the transition between non-living matter and life. The bottom-up development of an artificial cell would provide a minimal system with which to study the border between chemistry and biology. So far, a fully synthetic cell has remained elusive, but chemists are progressing towards this goal by reconstructing cellular subsystems.
See : Synthesis of lipid membranes for artificial cells Nature Reviews Chemistry (2021)
Also see :
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