Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

Site Tools

Main Menu

Main menu
Click categories to expand

A-Z listingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing

This is an alphabetical index of all content pages.

Other categories



Also see

Importance Ratings

Wikenigma supports:

Feeds etc
rss / xml feed
sitemap file
A-Z listing (archived)

Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of the Unknown Science

Arm swinging (in human walking)

In general, humans tend to swing their arms in sync (but out-of-phase) with their walking strides. Although the muscle-driven arm swinging must incur at least some energy costs, three recent experimental studies have shown that not swinging actually increases the overall energy costs of walking.

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain arm-swing, and its energy cost/benefits, but as yet there is no general agreement.

“Independent of how arm swing is executed, it appears to play an important part during human locomotion. However, what this role is exactly, is still unknown. Several hypotheses have been formulated, among which:
(a) reducing vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM) (Hinrichs, 1990; Murray et al., 1967; Pontzer et al., 2009;
(b) reducing angular momentum around the longitudinal axis (Bruijn et al., 2008; Bruijn et al., 2011; Collins et al., 2009a; Elftman, 1939; Hinrichs, 1990; Park, 2008);
(c ) reducing angular movement around the longitudinal axis (Fernandez Ballesteros et al., 1965; Murray et al., 1967; Pontzer et al., 2009);
(d) reducing the ground reaction moment (GRM) (Collins et al., 2009a; Li et al., 2001; Witte et al., 1991);
(e) increasing (local) stability (Ortega et al., 2008) / balance recovery after perturbations (Bruijn et al., 2010; Hof, 2007; Marigold et al., 2002; Pijnappels et al., 2010);
(f) facilitating leg movement (Meyns et al., 2013) and;
(g) minimizing energetic costs (Collins et al., 2009a; Ortega et al., 2008; Umberger, 2008).
These hypotheses cannot be seen entirely separate from each other, and are in some cases even entirely interdependent.”

Source: Influence of arm swing on cost of transport during walking in Biology Open 2019, May 2019.

    Share this page :


Dear reader : Do you have any suggestions for the site's content?

Ideas for new topics, and suggested additions / corrections for old ones, are always welcome.

If you have skills or interests in a particular field, and have suggestions for Wikenigma, get in touch !

Or, if you'd like to become a regular contributor . . . request a login password. Registered users can edit the entire content of the site, and also create new pages.

( The 'Notes for contributors' section in the main menu has further information and guidelines etc.)

Show another (random) page