The chemistry of the oceans has varied significantly over the past several billion years, and it is changing at an unprecedented rate today in response to anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels.
Calcium carbonates are among the most abundant and reactive minerals on Earth, and their dissolution/preservation in the ocean helps to regulate changes in atmospheric pCO2.
Despite its importance, the rate of carbonate dissolution in seawater is still described by a purely empirical expression, and the physical and chemical mechanisms setting the overall kinetics remain unknown.
Source: Naviaux, John David (2020) Chemical and Physical Mechanisms of Calcite Dissolution in Seawater. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology
The lack of understanding of the mechanisms involved makes accurate design of computer modelling techniques - which are currently crucial for predicting climate change - more problematic.
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