Please register ( or log-in ) to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register ( or log-in ) to create and edit pages
  • Register

Site Tools


Main Menu

Main menu
[ Click categories to expand ]

Other categories

For tests only


Also see:

Content Guidelinesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContent guidelines

Ideas for new topics are always welcomed, from experts and non-experts alike - if you're not sure if they'll be accepted by other editors, put them in the 'Proposed content' section for approval. The easiest way to create a new page is to use the

Registrationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigRegistration

At present, only registered users can create and edit articles. The registration process is very straightforward. Just click the 'Register' link at the top right of any page.

After you've registered, you'll be able to login with your password at any time…

How to edit pagesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigEditing pages

Once you're logged in, a grey floating 'Tool' menu at the right hand side of the screen enables access to all the main 'Content Pages' for editing. (Note: Some pages, such as the site info etc. are locked)

Like most Wikis, the site doesn't use

Importance Ratingsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigImportance ratings

In a departure from the usual Wiki format, Wikenigma assigns 'Importance Ratings' to some pages.

The idea is to separate articles which are considered (by the editors) to cover exceptionally important unknown issues from those which (although also u…

Faqplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigFrequently Asked Questions

Q. Why the weird syntax?

A. Like most Wikis, the site doesn't use HTML for formatting (security reasons etc). A guide to the special syntax can be found here. Unfortunately it can be quite confusing at first - but there's now a new 'Visual E…

Newsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNews

[ newest at the top ]

• Oct 2020 : A milestone of 500 unknown articles has been reached.

• Aug 2020 : Currently (beta) testing the new 'WYSIWYG' (What You See Is What You Get) page editor. It greatly simplifies the editing process, avoiding the need to learn the…

Contactsplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigContacts

Use this form to send a message to Wikenigma . . . [ * note: all fields must be completed ]

Legalplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigLegal

Content in general

Please note that in common with other publicly editable wikis, this website is not responsible for content posted by the public. Nevertheless, the ongoing editing process should be able to remove unsuitable content in a reasonable time. If you…


547 unknowns listed

Wikenigma supports:

plugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDonate to Wikenigma . . .

The best way to donate is by adding new original content !

That can either be by contributing to an existing article, or by creating a new page with an as-yet-unlisted 'Known Unknown'.

Any registered user can create content.

A-Z listing
rss / xml feed
sitemap file

Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopaedia of the Unknown Science

Water clusters

Water has a long list of 'anomalous' physical (and chemical) properties (list here). Most are now fairly well understood - but there is currently no overall model to explain all of its unusual properties.

One anomaly is the existence and prevalence of so called 'water clusters' in volumes of liquid water - it's known that liquid water is not homogeneous at the nanoscopic level. For example, small clusters of four water molecules may come together to form water bicyclo-octamers. Greater numbers can form large clusters; for instance the icosahedral (H2O)280. It should be noted that such clusters are constantly and dynamically forming and re-forming in liquid water. In a sense, the chemical formula H2O is a dramatic over-simplification.

Theoretical models using computer simulations have suggested a myriad of different cluster formations, and some have been observed and confirmed in nature using laser techniques. But little is understood about how water clusters form, persist, and affect the physical and chemical properties of bulk water.

More info here courtesy professor Martin Chaplin at London South Bank University.

Importance Rating


    Share this page :


DOKUWIKI IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN BY UNIV.ORG.UK