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Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

Lithium-ion batteries

“Although lithium ion batteries are considered as system of choice for variety of mobile and stationary applications, fundamental knowledge is alarmingly required to uncover the underlying principles controlling the basic processes that determine and dictate their function, operation, performance limitations as well as failure.”
Source: Proeceedings of the International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, 2016

A 2017 paper in Nature, highlights new work from the Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, in Korea where researchers have succeeded in observing in realtime the ultrafast dynamics of lithium ions with femtosecond time resolution - however :

“Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods.”

Note: This topic is an example of the small number of man-made technical systems which are in widespread use, though not fully understood. Other examples include Neural Networksplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigNeural Networks

"“Multilayer neural networks are among the most powerful models in machine learning, yet the fundamental reasons for this success defy mathematical understanding.” Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2018"

'Artificial Intelligen…
and Defibrillationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDefibrillation

Since the 1960s, electrical heart defibrillators have been routinely used as a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, especially ventricular fibrillation. The exact mechanism of action is yet to be determined, but is presumably linked to la…


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