Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

User Tools

    Please register and log-in to create and edit pages

Site Tools

Main Menu

Main menu
Click categories to expand

A-Z listingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing

This is an alphabetical index of all content pages.

Other categories



Also see

Importance Ratings

Wikenigma supports:

Feeds etc
rss / xml feed
sitemap file
A-Z listing (archived)

Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

Human running gait

Note: This article is currently in the Proposed Content section

Humans tend to run with arms bent at an acute angle. The reasons are unclear. A 2019 study published in the Journal of Experimental Biology found that there could be an energy advantage for walking with elbows slightly bent - but was unable to account for the bent-elbows-whilst-running phenomenon

Although we have focused on energetic cost as a mechanism in this study, stereotypical bent arm running may result from a non-energetic benefit. For instance, the biceps muscle is thought to link the inertia of the forearm and the head during running for the purpose of head stabilization (Lieberman, 2011); bent arms increases the flexion moment at the elbow and therefore may provide a head stabilization benefit. We must also consider that the stereotyped behavior during running may not provide a benefit at all.

See: Straight arm walking, bent arm running: gait-specific elbow angles Journal of Experimental Biology, 2019 222: jeb197228

    Share this page :


Dear reader : Do you have any suggestions for the site's content?

Ideas for new topics, and suggested additions / corrections for old ones, are always welcome.

If you have skills or interests in a particular field, and have suggestions for Wikenigma, get in touch !

Or, if you'd like to become a regular contributor . . . request a login password. Registered users can edit the entire content of the site, and also create new pages.

( The 'Notes for contributors' section in the main menu has further information and guidelines etc.)

Show another (random) page