The ketogenic diet remains a valuable therapeutic option for patients with intractable epilepsy. Clinical aspects of the diet's success may provide insights into epileptogenesis and anticonvulsant action. The diet's efficacy has been established primarily through large case series. The diet has been used successfully in patients with many different epilepsy syndromes in countries around the world.
Source: Clinical Aspects of the Ketogenic Diet Epilepsia, Volume 48, Issue 1.
Precise details of exactly how it works are currently unknown
Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose). Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.